Mozambique’s seascape is characterized by a diversity of ecosystems including mangrove forests, coral reefs, seagrass, beaches, estuaries and the open sea. Two thirds of the Mozambican population live along the coast and depend primarily on marine activities and resources, such as fisheries and tourism. Their livelihoods are at risk due to threats to the integrity of the marine ecosystems, including marine pollution from different sources, over fishing, sea grass overgrowth, mangrove destruction, erosion, and climate change. In addition to traditional maritime sectors (e.g. tourism, fisheries, ports & shipping), in recent years exploitation of vast reserves of hydrocarbon, coal, gas and other minerals has increased.
The first signs of conflicts of interest and spatial issues in the area have already appeared between neighboring fishing communities (artisanal vs. industrial), and between local communities and coastal tourism operators. There are also concerns and conflicts linked to the prospects for oil and gas development.
Ocean multi-use is a promising concept for de-escalating these emerging conflicts and supporting Mozambique’s sustainable socio-economic development by optimally using its vast coastal and maritime resources in balance with marine ecosystem preservation. This case study is designed to introduce and expand upon the application of ocean multi-use, in particular through the ongoing marine planning process for Mozambique’s waters.
This case study is paired with the French case study regarding the potential for pescatourism, and the Norwegian case regarding re-purposing of oil & gas installations. Exchanges across these cases will highlight commonalities and differences in applying the multi-use concept in different environments.
Multi-use is a very new concept in Mozambique, and outreach and dissemination as well as engagement with other initiatives will be crucial to raise awareness about potential multi-use opportunities as input to relevant ongoing planning and strategy processes. The MULTI-FRAME partner leading this case, Natural History Museum of Eduardo Mondlane University, will establish close contact with the ongoing national marine spatial planning (MSP) process to ensure that case study results are timely, relevant and provide suitable solutions and information. The scenarios above, as well as the lessons learned from the paired cases (France & Norway), are expected to support the Ministry of the Sea, Inland Waters and Fisheries (MIMAIP), responsible for overseeing the national MSP process. The results are also expected to provide new outlooks and encourage the promotion and uptake of the multi-use concept by the ProAzul Blue Economy Action Plan and associated initiatives.
In addition to these government led initiatives, scenarios will also be shared with the following initiatives: